The results for the compressibility, effective mass and velocity of sound are analysed as a function of the lattice depth and of the strength of the. Gravity, boseeinstein condensates and gross pitaevskii equation article pdf available in current science 10911 may 2015 with 2 reads how we measure reads. Ground states of a boseeinstein condensate in a onedimensional. Mit physicists develop a faster way to make boseeinstein. In their perspective, pitaevskii and stringari discuss recent. Since the first realizations of boseeinstein condensation bec in a dilute gas of alkali atoms, research in the interdisciplinary fields of atom optics and quantum fluids has flourished. The remainder is devoted specifically to the dilute alkali gases. Boseeinstein condensation by pitaevskii and coauthor sandro stringari, who is another major contributor to the recent theoretical literature, reflects the brief history just sketched. We obtain pure optically trapped becs of 168er containing 7 104 atoms. Boseeinstein condensation and superfluidity international series of monographs on physics 1st edition. The mechanism of vortex nucleation in an atomic bec is discussed in detail. A boseeinstein condensate bec is a state of matter in which extensive collective coherence leads to intriguing macroscopic quantum phenomena1.
The techniques, condensate size, and the general conditions for condensation are di erent from those of other realizations and one can expect that this new condensate will open complementary lines of research. Stringari this book is an introductory text to the physics of boseeinstein condensation. Nobel prize winning physicist wolfgang ketterle on laser and evaporative cooling, the candidates for boseeinstein condensation, and possibility of its realizing in general category science. Dynamics of the boseeinstein condensation request pdf. Boseeinstein condensation and superfluidity international series of monographs on physics book 164 kindle edition by lev pitaevskii, sandro stringari. Boseeinstein condensation, journal of research of the. Magnetic solitons in a binary boseeinstein condensate. Ground states and dynamical properties of a dipolar boseeinstein condensate are analyzed based on the gross pitaevskii poisson system gpps and its dimension reduction models under an anisotropic confining potential. Pitaevskii, sandro stringari submitted on 19 feb 2016 v1, last revised 20 apr 2016 this version, v2. Boseeinstein condensation and superfluidity in trapped.
The internet archive is a bargain, but we need your help. Quantum tricriticality and phase transitions in spinorbit coupled boseeinstein condensates. By an elaborate mathematical analysis we show that a sharp stability threshold exists with respect to the number of condensate particles. The slowing of atoms by the use of cooling produces a singular quantum state. Due to the complexity and timescales needed to simulate such system, it was essential to write some accelerated code to understand the behaviour of such systems. Laszlo erdos, benjamin schlein, horngtzer yau submitted on 5 jun 2006 v1, last revised 10 dec 2006 this version, v3. For the love of physics walter lewin may 16, 2011 duration. Boseeinstein condensation and superfluidity paperback. Transient boseeinstein condensation of phonons sciencedirect. Written by world renowned experts in the field, this book gives a comprehensive overview of exciting developments in boseeinstein condensation and superfluidity from a theoretical perspective.
Boseeinstein condensation photon condensation magnetooptical trap gross pitaevskii equation plancks radiation law pacs numbers 05. The gross pitaevskii equation and bose einstein condensates 3 substituted by the mean action of the uid over the particle. Russian, born in saratov russia january 18, 1933 s. Grosspitaevskii equation and its linear stability analysis.
Bose einstein condensates portant, since bec in lower dimensions is not as simple as in 3d. Jan 19, 2010 interesting measurements of the reduced moment of inertia of atomic bose einstein condensates have been performed by looking at the frequency of the socalled scissors mode in an anisotropic trap and at the time evolution of the shape of an expanding condensate after releasing the trap. The new numerical method is explicit, unconditionally stable, time reversible, time transverse invariant, and of spectral accuracy in space and. Boseeinstein condensation of quasiparticles wikipedia. The book is an introductory text to the physics of boseeinstein condensation. Gross pitaevskii equation in bose einstein condensates. H, 4 he, 7 li, 23 na, and the two isotopes 85 rb and 87 rb. Direct evidence of spatial stability of boseeinstein condensate of.
Universal themes bose einstein condensation condensed matter. From the timedependent grosspitaevskii equation we can look at the dynamics of the boseeinstein condensate. Boseeinstein condensation and superfluidity international series. Click and collect from your local waterstones or get free uk delivery on orders over. Boseeinstein condensates of dilute gases offer a rich field to study.
Because of the rapid thermalization of the two different atoms, the efficiency of the cooling process is high. Below t c,thecondensatepopula tionvarieswithtemperatureas n0 n 1. Derivation of the gross pitaevskii equation for the dynamics of bose einstein condensate authors. Get your kindle here, or download a free kindle reading app. A coherent state develops when the particle density is sufficiently high or the temperature is sufficiently low. We report on the bose einstein condensation of potassium atoms, whereby quantum degeneracy is achieved by sympathetic cooling with evaporatively cooled rubidium. The quantum condensate anticipated by frohlich involves phonons, the quanta associated to normal modes of crystal lattice. Cooling fermions to extremely low temperatures has created degenerate gases, subject to the pauli exclusion principle. Boseeinstein condensation and superfluidity by lev. Boseeinstein condensation of erbium atoms and on the observation of feshbach resonances in the region of low magnetic.
Grosspitaevskii dynamics of boseeinstein condensates and. Following an explosion of research on boseeinstein condensation bec ignited by demonstration of the effect by 2001 nobel prize winners cornell, wieman. This book is an introductory text to the physics of boseeinstein condensation. Boseeinstein condensation and superfluidity international. This is the first book devoted to boseeinstein condensation bec as an interdisciplinary subject, covering atomic and molecular physics, laser physics, low temperature physics and astrophysics. Written by world renowned experts in the field, this book gives a comprehensive overview of exciting developments in bose einstein condensation and superfluidity from a theoretical perspective. A bose einstein condensate bec is a state of matter where quantum effects become apparent on a macroscopic scale. This book is an introductory text to the physics of bose einstein condensation. Some have integer spins and can be expected to obey boseeinstein statistics like traditional particles. Stringari approximate solutions of the nonlinear schrodinger equation for ground and excited states of boseeinstein condensates 165 kb r. The grosspitaevskii equation and boseeinstein condensates. Conditions for condensation of various quasiparticles have been predicted and observed. Grosspitaevskii equation in boseeinstein condensates.
Providing a useful introduction to one of the most exciting fields of physics today, this text will be of interest to a growing community of physicists, and is easily accessible to nonspecialists alike. This phenomenon, first predicted by einstein in 1925 has been realized experimentally in 1995 in a remarkable series of experiments whose importance has been recognized by the award of the 2001 nobel prize in physics. A good reference is the book boseeinstein condensation in dilute gases by pethick and smith. Direct forced evaporative cooling of the bosonic isotopes of potassium has been. Apr 18, 2008 the spatial selforganization of a bose einstein condensate bec in a highfinesse linear optical cavity is discussed. Ultracold atomic gases is a rapidly developing area of physics that attracts many young researchers around the world. Boseeinstein condensation wolfgang ketterle youtube. Jan 25, 2011 a bose einstein condensate bec is a state of matter where quantum effects become apparent on a macroscopic scale. Pitaevskii, sandro stringari from waterstones today. Selforganization of a boseeinstein condensate in an optical. Application to boseeinstein condensates springerlink.
Buy boseeinstein condensation and superfluidity by lev. Siam journal on mathematical analysis siam society for. The gross pitaevskii equation gpe is a successful and wellestablished model for describing an atomic boseeinstein condensate. The value of the threshold agrees with the existing experimental data. The quest for superfluidity in fermi gases science. Providing a useful introduction to one of the most exciting field of physics today, this text will be of interest. Throughout the rest of this chapter we explore its. We consider an interacting, dilute bose gas trapped in a harmonic potential at a positive temperature. This phenomenon, first predicted by einstein in 1925, has been realized experimentally in 1995 in a remarkable series of experiments whose importance has been recognized by the award of the 2001 nobel prize in physics.
Boseeinstein condensation of potassium atoms by sympathetic. Boseeinstein condensation for an exponential density of states function and lerch zeta function. Boseeinstein condensation is a phase transition in which a macroscopic number of. We discuss the blochstate solutions of the stationary gross pitaevskii equation and of the bogoliubov equations for a boseeinstein condensate in the presence of a onedimensional optical lattice. The aim of the infmcnr research and development center on boseeinstein condensation bec is to promote theoretical research on the various phenomena related to boseeinstein condensation and to the physics of cold atomic gases in traps.
Nevertheless, now that hydrogen can be bose einstein condensed, its simplicity continues to give the atom unique interest. Dalfovo f, giorgini s, pitaevskii l p and stringari s 1999 theory of boseeinstein condensation in trapped gases rev. Derivation of the grosspitaevskii equation for the dynamics. N,t are also asymptotically factorized and the one particle orbital wave function solves the grosspitaevskii equation, a cubic nonlinear schrodinger equation with the coupling constant given by the scattering length of the potential v. Linear response theory for gross pitaevskii equation.
We propose the critical nonlinear schrodinger equation with a harmonic potential as a model of attractive boseeinstein condensates. Evolution of cosmological perturbations in boseeinstein. The authors also make sense of key experiments from the past twenty years with a. The gross pitaevskii equation and boseeinstein condensates 249 of the system is the creation of vortices, which can be seen as small twisters inside the liquid that behave quite differently. Theory of boseeinstein condensation in trapped gases. The book is an introductory text to the physics of bose einstein condensation. Nobel prize winning physicist wolfgang ketterle on laser and evaporative cooling, the candidates for boseeinstein condensation, and. Bose einstein condensate as it realtes to buddhism. The condensate is actually a new state of matter, where quantummechanical wave functions of. Boseeinstein condensate a new state of matter youtube. A new boseeinstein condensate created at aalto university duration. A boseeinstein condensate bec is a state of matter also called the fifth state of matter which is typically formed when a gas of bosons at low densities is cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero 273. The early experiments on boseeinstein condensation in dilute atomic gases accomplished three longstanding goals. The new numerical method is explicit, unconditionally stable, time reversible, time transverse invariant, and of spectral accuracy in space and second.
The ability to achieve condensation by sympathetic cooling with a different species may provide a route to the production. Boseeinstein condensation, journal of research of the national. Introduction to boseeinstein condensation 6 andthecriticaltemperature tc. But this is a slow process that ultimately removes more than 99 percent of the original atoms in order to retain the atoms that are cold enough to turn into boseeinstein condensates. Boseeinstein condensation clarendon press, oxford, 2003. The primary use of this code was for research on boseeinstein condensates. Grosspitaevskii model of the condensate springerlink.
Stability of attractive boseeinstein condensates springerlink. Above a critical pump intensity the homogeneous condensate evolves into a stable pattern bound by the cavity field. Meanfield theory provides a framework to understand the main features of the condensation and the role of interactions between particles. Bachelorarbeit a single vortex in a boseeinstein condensate. At very low temperatures, all particles in a dilute bose gas condense to the same quantum ground state, forming a boseeinstein condensate bec, i. We propose a timesplitting spectral method for the coupled gross pitaevskii equations, which describe the dynamics of rotating twocomponent boseeinstein condensates at a very low temperature. Some of the assumptions of the gross pitaevskii equation gpe are. In a fermi gas, boseeinstein condensation of pairs was measured by ramping the scattering length to the bec side and detecting the resulting bimodal distribution condensation of pairs measured at unitarity 1a0 as a function of temperature. Oxford science publication trapping atoms with radio frequency adiabatic potentials jan 2017. The transition point is determined analytically from a meanfield. It is used to find the collective modes of a trapped gas.
Boseeinstein condensates composed of a wide range of isotopes have been produced. If you find our site useful, we ask you humbly, please chip in. Dodd zerotemperature, meanfield theory of atomic boseeinstein condensates 298 kb. Only 50% of pairs are boseeinstein condensed at zero temperature strongly interacting gas. Integrability of a general grosspitaevskii equation and. To exhibit boseeinstein condensation, the fermions must pair up to form bosonic compound particles e. Roomtemperature boseeinstein condensation of cavity. We report on the boseeinstein condensation of potassium atoms, whereby quantum degeneracy is achieved by sympathetic cooling with evaporatively cooled rubidium. Boseeinstein condensation on curved manifolds request pdf.
Were dedicated to reader privacy so we never track you. Moreover with this threshold we prove that a ground. Boseeinstein condensation can occur in quasiparticles, particles that are effective descriptions of collective excitations in materials. Boseeinstein condensation international series of monographs on physics 1st edition. A timesplitting spectral method for coupled gross pitaevskii equations with applications to rotating boseeinstein condensates hanquan wang 1 aug 2007 journal of computational and applied mathematics, vol. This phenomenon, first predicted by einstein in 1925 has been realized experimentally in 1995 in a remarkable series of experiments whose importance has been recognized. Download it once and read it on your kindle device, pc, phones or tablets. Under such conditions, a large fraction of bosons occupy the lowest quantum state, at which point microscopic quantum phenomena, particularly wavefunction interference. The condensate atoms are laserdriven from the side and scatter photons into the cavity. Boseeinstein condensation in a dilute, trapped gas at. The research of vortices in classical uids has a very long history. This wave function obeys a nonlinear schr odinger equation known as the gross pitaevskii equation 5, 6. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading boseeinstein condensation and superfluidity international series of monographs on physics. Effective action approach to boseeinstein condensation of ideal gases 232 kb.
The condensate wave function of a trapped atomic gas 150 kb f. Kinetic theory and boseeinstein condensation sciencedirect. Since the grosspitaevskii equation is a nonlinear partial differential equation, exact solutions are hard to come by. Volume 5, issue 1, januaryfebruary 2004, pages 91106. In a fermi gas, bose einstein condensation of pairs was measured by ramping the scattering length to the bec side and detecting the resulting bimodal distribution condensation of pairs measured at unitarity 1a0 as a function of temperature. The condensate is actually a new state of matter, where quantummechanical wave functions of atoms. Here we introduce this model, along with its assumptions. The former work considers the case of simple integrator sde dynamics for a particular class of mfgs, which shows strong analogies with the nonlinear schrodinger and explicitly treating the grosspitaevskii equation. Magnetic solitons in a binary boseeinstein condensate authors. Apr 17, 2018 researchers at aalto university, finland, have created a bose einstein condensate of light coupled with metal electrons, socalled surface plasmon polaritons. Gravity, boseeinstein condensates and grosspitaevskii. Pitaevskii l and stringari s 2016 boseeinstein condensation and superfluidity 2nd edn oxford. This software is a cudaenabled nonlinear schrodinger gross pitaevskii equation solver.834 727 1200 437 785 1008 381 511 861 113 771 1097 138 1071 967 1375 1272 1415 575 474 729 37 355 873 652 829 211 286 498 584 588 46 540 373 964